Watkuweis

sc0099748fWatkuweis was single-handedly responsible for saving The Lewis and Clark Expedition, although they never even knew.

As recorded in The Encyclopedia of the Lewis and Clark Expedition:

Carte_Lewis-Clark_Expedition-en

It would have been an easy matter to kill them and take possession of their guns, ammunition, and trade goods, thus ensuring the Nez Perce’s dominance over other nations, and several of the warriors advocated doing just that.

It was an old woman named Watkuweis who stopped them. Watkuweis stepped forward and said, “These are the people who helped me. Do them no hurt.”

“She told history about the whites and every Nez Perce listened . . . told how the white people were good to her, treated her with kindness. That is why the Nez Percés never made harm to the Lewis and Clark people. . . . We ought to have a monument to her in this far West. She saved much for the white race.”

From The Women of The Fur Trade website, with permission and a big THANKS to Sandy Gabbert Hunt:

watkuweis-1jpgThe story of Watkuweis has been handed down in the oral history of the Nez Perce tribe.   Lewis and Clark never even knew, so of course they recorded nothing of the event.  Clark did meet her and recorded in his journal about the woman who had been captured by the Minitarries of the North and had seen white men. William_Clark-Charles_Willson_Peale

Watkuweis, whose name means “Returns from a Far Land,” had been captured, taken to Canada, and then traded between tribes until she ended up far away in the Great Lakes region. She had been purchased by a white man and lived for a time among the whites. According to the stories she was the first of their tribe to see white men and return to tell about it. After she had given birth to a child she determined to escape. With the help of the friendly whites, who supplied her with food and a horse, she began her long journey back to her tribe.nez perce map

It was such an incredible distance for a lone woman and her baby to travel!  Whenever she was in danger of being discovered the fog would close in thick and hide her! Faced with starvation in the season of cold, she killed her horse for food. Under such hardships, her baby died. By a miracle she made her way to a band of Salish who helped her return to her tribe, but the privations of her journey had taken a toll on her health, which she never fully regained. Though still young, she was called “Old Watkuweis.”

watkuweisShe was on her deathbed when the strange party of white men arrived with their Shoshone guide. Their arrival immediately aroused suspicion because the Nez Perce had recently sent a group of their men to try and establish peace with the Shoshones, but the Nez Perce delegation was killed. They felt vulnerable, since many Nez Perce warriors were absent from the village at this time, having gone to revenge their fallen tribes.

Marie Dorion

marie dorianYou know of Sacajewea, but have you heard of Marie Dorion? She was the second woman to make the long trip from Missouri to the West Coast. She was in her early 20’s at the time her husband, Pierre Dorion, was hired as a guide and interpreter for the Wilson Hunt Party of 1811. Marie, along with her two children, Baptiste (approx. age 4) and Paul (approx. age 2), were brought along.

After they tried, unsuccessfully, to travel the Snake River in Dugout Canoes, the ill-fated Wilson Hunt party met with hard times.  Around what is now Burley, Idaho, they had to abandon their canoes. With most of their trade goods cached, each man, carrying a 20lb. pack, began walking toward their goal of Fort Astoria which was located on the coast.  The party divided into smaller groups, hoping it would be easier to find food.map

From journals members of the party kept, we know how desperate their situation became. On November 18th, around Glen’s Ferry, Idaho, they were able to trade for salmon and dog meat. On November 27th, they found frozen blackberries and divided the meat of one beaver among their group. Remember that, all this time, Marie was carrying her two children and was also pregnant! Her baby was the first, with mixed blood, to be born in the Western land. In their sad state of starvation, however, the baby did not survive.

Marie carried her burdens, of body and soul, without complaint and earned the admiration and respect of all the men in the party!  Amazingly, all but two men lived, arriving to the fort on February 15th, 1812. Marie may have thought her hard times were over, but it was not to be.

In the Summer of 1813, Pierre Dorion was assigned as a hunter for a trapping party headed to the Boise River.  They built a cabin on the Snake, where trapping was good, near the mouth of the Boise River. In January they were attacked by Bannock Indians.  Marie and her husband, along with Jacob Rezner and Giles LeClerc, were trapping from a camp about 5 days away from the main cabin.  LeClerc, severely wounded, made his way back to camp to bear the bad news to Marie that her husband and Rezner had been killed.

marie-dorionMarie caught two horses and hoisted the wounded LeClerc over one saddle, along with what supplies she could hastily pack. With her two children on the other horse, she forged her way back to the main cabin.

LeClerc died that first night, but Marie and her children continued on, arriving late on the fourth day only to find ashes where the cabin had once stood. Determined to save her children, she forded the Snake River and followed their old trail back from Astoria. Nine days later the snow became too deep to continue. In a sheltered ravine, she built a primitive hut by using skins thrown over a framework of branches.  She killed the two horses for food. This shelter was their home for 53 days.marie-dorion2

By the end of March their food supply had become desperately low. Marie set out on foot, holding the hand of her oldest and carrying on her back her youngest child, along with what was left of their food. On the second day of travel, Marie became snow blind, and was unable to take a step further.  She remained in this condition, for three days, before starting out on foot again.

placqueFinally, she reached the Wallah Wallah River and then traveled for 15 more days to reach the Columbia River Plains. Weak from hunger, and barely able to walk, she saw smoke in the distance.  Leaving her children lying under a Buffalo robe, she walked, and then crawled, to reach that distant camp. It turned out to be friendly Wallah Wallah Indians, who tracked back to rescue her two children.

Marie_dorionOn April 17th, canoes from Fort Astoria, approaching the mouth of the Wallah Wallah, were intercepted by this tribe. When they pulled to shore they were amazed to hear of Marie Dorion’s story of survival under such hardship!


sandyUsed with permission from The Women of The Fur Trade and with special thanks to Sandy Gabbert Huntwho did a 5 day trip down The Snake River, in a bull boat, on the 200th anniversary of Marie Dorion’s trek!bull boat

The Mountain Culture

Life in the early 1800’s was brutally hard, for men and women, both in the settlements and in the wilderness. On average, the life expectancy of a woman was 25-30 years old. For men, it was 35 years old.

tenderexotic2Women of European descent were known as “Tender Exotics” and were almost unknown in the fur trade, with many developing mental health issues and returning to the motherland or eastern cities. Most of the problems encountered by these women had their roots in the class-conscious nature of British society of the time. The wife of a fur company manager was expected to associate only with other women of her class. In the remote posts, there would be no-one else at that level, and it wasn’t proper or allowable for her to associate with Indian or mixed-heritage women, even if, by some remote chance, there wasn’t a language barrier. As a manager’s wife, servants took care of the domestic tasks about the house. Thus, she felt very little purpose, with the exception of being there for her husband, who was gone, sometimes, for several months at a time. Wilderness conditions and societal demands created a “rock and a hard place” environment in which “Tender Exotics” lost their will.

hidetanningOn the northern plains and Rocky Mountain regions, the role of the Indian women, in the affairs of the tribe, was as the authority in domestic matters, with primary responsibilities for housekeeping. From the European perspective this role, in many ways, had a greater resemblance to slave than partner. The women were responsible for child rearing, cooking, butchering, preparing hides, skins, and robes, gathering firewood, preserving foods, all aspects of agriculture (if any) making and mending clothing and moccasins, constructing the lodge and most aspects of establishing and raising camp. Tanning and preparing buffalo robes was very labor intensive, and an ambitious man wishing to increase his wealth might have multiple wives to increase robe production.

Women were often treated as property. A suitor for marriage would have to provide the woman’s father (or oldest brother in the event that the father was deceased) with a horse, guns, blankets, kettles, etc., in exchange for the woman. The bride’s price was determined, in part, on the value placed by the father on the loss of the woman’s productivity and work around the lodge.

natawistaTo become the wife of a fur trader, the Indian woman was offered the prospect of an alternate way of life that was often easier physically and richer in material ways. Such an alliance did require some sacrifice in personal autonomy as the Indian woman was forced to make some adjustments to the traders patriarchal views of home and family. One Nor’Wester noted that Cree women considered it an honor to be selected as wives by the voyageurs.

PortraiAn Indian woman, who married a trapper/trader, might remain with her village where he would visit her periodically, or she might live at the fort/post with her trader husband, or accompany the nomadic wanderings of her trapper husband. It is said that the only authority that the Free Trapper would acknowledge was that of his Indian spouse. This authority was asserted as much with a white spouse as well as with a man of her own tribe. The household was effectively the property of the woman, and to a certain extent the products of her labor were hers to dispose of as she wished. In some aspects the Indian woman enjoyed considerably more autonomy than her European counterpart, at times leading to considerable confusion amongst the patriarchal trader/trappers.

apachewomenIf she remained with the village or accompanied her trapper husband, her life probably didn’t change much from village life, except that she would have first access to many luxury items not available to other women. Indian wives expected and received lavish gifts, for their husbands strove to exhibit them as the most brilliantly clothed and ornamented of the women whether at the village, post or rendezvous.

weddingBecause there were no clergy in the mountains, marriages were “after the custom of the country” or an indigenous marriage which met both the needs of the trader and the natives. The Indians initially encouraged the marriage alliances between their women and the European and European descent traders. The Indian viewed the marriage in an integrated social and economic context, whereby the marriage created a social bond which served to consolidate economic relationships with the traders. In return for giving the traders sexual and domestic rights to their women, the Indians expected reciprocal privileges such as access to posts, provisions and trade goods. Among the Cree Indians it became customary to reserve one or more daughters specifically to offer as wives for the traders.
payforwifeThe benefits of marriage also accrued to the traders.  It didn’t take traders long to realize that marriage to a daughter of a leading hunter or respected chief not only secured the furs of the father-in-law, but of all his relations as well. Marriage to an Indian woman furthermore provided the trapper/trader with a translator and cultural liaison/ambassador within her tribe. The domestic chores performed by the Indian woman greatly assisted the trapper/trader and greatly enhanced his ability to successfully prosecute his end of the fur trade.

mixedbloodchildTrappers, who chose to raise mixed blood families, often found themselves acting as mediators between the two cultures, interpreting each to the other and many would even find themselves aligned with their adopted people in times of conflict. Women and children often traveled with the trapping brigades. If it was not possible to travel with their husbands, the women might return to their tribal families, or might camp near the trading post until their husbands returned from the hunt.

Marriage was not always viewed as a long-term commitment by either the trapper/traders or by the women. A fur company man might also have multiple Indian wives, with one or more tribes in the mountains, and a European descended city wife as well. Under these circumstance care was exercised so that the city wife would never meet the “country” wife (wives) or children in the event she should travel to the remote post where he was stationed.

fur trapper2Although the stereotype of the trapper would suggest that he had many wives, often at the same time, statistical analysis of marriage data suggests otherwise. Marriage data shows that most trappers had only one wife, and that marriage lasted on average for 15 years with the majority of these marriages terminated by the death of one of the partners. Second marriages also lasted on average for 15 years. Only 10 percent of marriages are documented to have been terminated by separation or divorce. Nearly half of all marriages were with Indian or mixed heritage women. Anglo-American and French-American women constitute about one-quarter of marriages. In most of these cases, the wedding took place prior to the man leaving for the mountains. About 17 percent of women were Spanish or Spanish-American, particularly with those men that frequented Taos or Santa Fe.

Of those men with women that remained behind in the settlements, it is unlikely that they remained celibate while in the mountains trapping. Unrecorded temporary liaisons with Indian women of very short duration for purposes of relieving sexual tension were probably frequent.

furtradersIn some cases, when a trader or trapper retired from the mountains to return to civilization he would “turn off” his country wife, that is simply leave her behind, and, if generous, would return her to her village before leaving. A woman who was “turned off” would return to her father’s lodge (or brother’s lodge should the father be deceased) where she would work for the household until another suitor purchased her hand. The Indian women didn’t anticipate that such relations would be permanent.

A woman could initiate divorce just as simply as the man. If an Indian woman decided to divorce her husband, she would simply put his things outside the door of the lodge. When the man returned, he had two choices. He could try to talk his way back in, or he could simply pick up his belongings and move on.

The trapper would often “turn off” his Indian wife on retiring from the mountains. Although some of the men, particularly officers in the Hudson’s Bay Company and North West Company, would provide an annuity for their women and dependents, far too many simply disappeared from the lives of their native families.

In other cases, if the relation wasn’t working for the trader or trapper, he would directly attempt to sell his wife and recover some of the bride’s price. Dr. Wislizenus, a traveler in the mountain west in 1839 writes of meeting a party of trappers including one Fleming:  “He had a squaw with him, of the tribe of the Eutaws, whom he had bought at one time for $500.00, but was disposed to sell for half the purchase price. She was a little, unshapen bundle of fat; but otherwise seemed to have very good qualities, for he recommended her to us in the following terms, characteristic of the cardinal virtues of a squaw: ‘She is young, gentle, easy, and in first rate order.” Wislizenus does not mention if the trapper successfully sold the woman to anyone in his party.

Walker and Wife - Alfred MillerThe woman would certainly be exposed to the same dangers and hardships as her husband. If she accompanied her trader husband back to a fort or post, she would still have been occupied with many of the same domestic tasks that would have been hers in her village, but she wouldn’t have had to work as brutally hard and the quality of her life would have improved. The following entry from David Adams journals December 26, 1841 illustrates this:  “The 26 Sunday this morning the sun ris clear and worm and thawing to day thar nothing strang and we hav had but one visitr today and he did dow his damdost to git my squaw to run of with him but I discuvrd it and did throw a curs on his head and you ort to sean this poor Indian how he did run fur fear that I wold kill him and I expet that he is running yet thow the squaw says that she had now noshon of going with him to the vilig to liv a mesarable life she says when you throw me on the porary [prairie] and I cant dow now betr then I will hav to gow to my vilig and liv with my pepl and lead a dog life but I shant dow until I cant dow now betr.” To paraphrase the woman, she is saying that there is no way she will willingly leave David Adams to return to a woman’s life in her peoples’ village, which she describes both as “a miserable life” and as “a dog’s life.”

kettle2Perhaps even more so than the native men, the Indian women welcomed the introduction of European technology. Items such as kettles, knives, awls and woolen and cotton fabrics greatly eased the domestic burdens of the women. In many instances it was the Indian women who acted as an ally or peace-maker to advance the cause of the fur trader, suggesting that it was in the woman’s interest to do so.  There are documented cases where Indian women actively interfered in attacks by their warrior-husbands on fur traders. Furthermore, because of her gender, the Indian woman could be absorbed into fur-trade society in a way not open to the Indian man.

The Bear Lake Monster

“”The Indians have a tradition concerning a strange, serpent-like creature inhabiting the waters of Bear Lake, which they say carried off some of their braves many moons ago. Since then, they willnot sleep close to the lake. Neither will they swim in it, nor let their squaws nor papooses bathe in it.

Now, it seems this water devil, as the Indians called it, has again made an appearance. A number of our white settlers declare they have seen it with their own eyes. This Bear Lake Monster, they now call it, is causing a great deal of excitement up here. S.M. Johnson, at South Eden, was riding along near the lake the other day when he saw something a number of yards out in the lake which he thought was the body of a man. rendering2He waited for the waves to wash it in, but to his surprise, found the water washed over it without causing it to move. Then he saw it had a head and neck like some strange animal. On each side of the head were ears, or bunches the size of a pint cup. He concluded the body must be touching the bottom of the lake. By this time, however, Johnson seems to have been leaving the place so rapidly he failed to observe other details.

The next day three women and a man saw a monstrous animal in the lake near the same place, but this time it was swimming at an incredible speed. According to their statement, it was moving faster than a horse could run.”

Joseph-C.-RichThis was the second-hand account of a mythical lake creature, as reported by Joseph C. Rich, a Mormon colonizer, and published in The Deseret Evening News in the year 1868. The article created quite a stir in Salt Lake City, so much that L.D.S. Church leader, Brigham Young, visited the area to investigate. L.D.S. Leaders dialogued with Charles C. Rich13-Charles-C.-Rich and other settlers from The Bear Lake Valley, regarding the lake monster. Considering the testimony that had been given “by so many individuals, who have seen a creature in so many places and under a variety of circumstances,” they considered the story to be “indisputable.” Brigham Young went so far as sending a large rope to Paris, Idaho to aid in capturing the monster.

deseretnewsThe Deseret News continued to publish articles about the monster—waffling back and forth, first as a skeptic, and then defending its existence. The Salt Lake Tribune wrote that the monster was the “twin brother to the devil and a cousin to Brigham Young.”

BrighamYoung1Young wasn’t the only person interested in capturing the creature. A local resident proposed using a large, baited hook attached to a twenty-foot cable and three hundred yards of one-inch rope, at the end of which was a large buoy with a flagstaff inserted, and an anchor to keep it in a perpendicular position. From the buoy, one hundred yards of three-quarter-inch rope was to be extended to a tree on shore. (Wow…I wonder if that resident went on to design the game, “Mouse Trap” or something…) If captured, the community felt the monster could serve as freak show type competition to the famous traveling circus of P.T. Barnum.

renderingWhat does the Bear Lake Monster look like? The descriptions vary:

• Its size was reported anywhere from 40 to 200 feet long.

• Its head was described as that of a cow, a walrus without tusks, or like that of an alligator.walrushead

• It’s eyes were very large and wide apart.

• It had a large undulating serpent like body with about 30 feet of exposed surface at each sighting.

• It was cream colored early on and somehow morphed into a dark, slimy green at last sighting.

• It had ears about the size of a pint cup.

• Although it had an unknown number of legs, their length was firmly established at eighteen inches long,  Although walking on land was difficult for the beast, it was quite speedy in water.

• There are claims of the monster swimming faster than a horse could run on dry land, or even faster than a locomotive (New name for the beast!  Clark Kent, aka the SuperMANster!) reaching speeds of 60 m.p.h.

• Some sightings even spoke of a second member of the species and smaller monsters as well.

Articles about the Bear Lake Monster continued to appear, either reciting new sightings of the creature(s) in Bear Lake and spreading to sightings at outlying rivers and lakes in the Utah Territory, or calling the sightings into question. The number of appearances of lake monsters across northern Utah caused some people to speculate that there was an underground channel connecting the Great Salt Lake and other waterways to Bear Lake. (An underground snailroad for sea creatures?)

As interest died down about the monster, twenty-six years following his first article and allegations, Joseph C. Rich finally admitted that it had all been a “wonderful first class lie.”

bearlakemonsterxing_bwThe Bear Lake Monster appears in Animal Planet’s “Lost Tapes,” drama series, in which it is depicted as similar to a crocodile or a mosasaur. The show portrays a group of girls who were attacked by the monster while staying in tents beside the lake.

Most recently the search for this creature was the subject of SyFy Channel’s Haunted Highway Season 1, Episode 1 (2012) “Bear Lake Beast; vs Hairy Man.” In this show the investigators found a cow bone in a submerged cave, leading to the question: How did it get there?

muskrat monster

Bear Lake Monster? Or Muskrat? You decide.

Since its first reported sighting in 1868, the Bear Lake Monster has become a part of folklore and a source of pride for the locals. In more recent years it has become a tourist attraction of sorts as the legend of the Bear Lake Monster has prompted an influx of tourists hoping to catch a view of the lake beast.

the_bear_lake_monster_by_zinfer-d3d08x1A 1907 letter published in a Logan, Utah newspaper claimed that two men had seen the Bear Lake behemoth attack their camp and kill one of their horses.

A man spotted the monster early one evening as he was walking along the lake. He tried to shoot it with his rifle. The man was a crack shot, but not one of his bullets touched that monster. It scared the heck out of him and he high tailed it home faster than you can say Jack Robinson. He left his rifle behind, claiming the monster ate it.

Bull Moose swimming in Grand Teton National Park

Yep! Yep! Thar she blows!!

My father, David Jasper Kearl III, shared a story with me recently about the monster. It was 1930-31 and he was all of 4-5 years old at the time. He recalls the excitement in town as members of the community came running up from the lake claiming that the monster had surfaced. The entire population of Laketown converged at the water’s edge in anticipation of spotting the mythical beast. It ended up being a rather large, swimming moose.

A four-year-old claimed to see it in 1937

A Boy Scout leader spoke of seeing it in 1946.

The last reported sighting of the monster was in June 2002. Brian Hirschi announced that he had seen the creature, but skeptics were quick to point out that his story hit the newspapers on Memorial Day weekend — the start of the summer Bear Lake tourist season.

It happened, he insists, one night in June 2002 as he was anchoring his large pontoon tour boat — ironically shaped like a sea monster — after a day of ferrying tourists around the 20-mile long, 8-mile wide and 208-foot deep crystal blue lake.

sightingAfter anchoring his vessel, he saw “two humps in the water” about 100 yards from the boat. At first, he thought they were water skis, but they disappeared. Then, his boat lifted up. “The next thing I know, a serpent-like creature shot up out of the water.” He said it had “really dark, slimy green skin and deep beet-red eyes.” It sunk back down under the water as quickly as it arose, but not before making a sound like a roaring bull.

Hirschi feared everyone would think he was crazy or out on the lake too much. But a year after his experience, he chose to break his silence.

blmonsteerboatTo scoffers who claim his revelation was nothing more than a publicity stunt to boost the Bear Lake tourist trade, he replies: “Once you’ve seen the monster, you really don’t care what other people say.”

For years, Hirschi’s Bear Lake Monster Boat offered a 45-minute scenic cruise of Bear Lake with folklore storytelling. During the bear-lake-raspberry-daysRaspberry Days parade, there have been float entries manned by local children, labeled “The REAL Bear Lake Monsters.”


With the monster being quiet for the last little bit, people have started to say it is gone for good. What they don’t know is that while tag teaming the tethering of some skinned sticks in preparation for erecting a Tipi at last year’s BEAR LAKE RENDEZVOUS, Fuzzy and Kash were playing a lively game of “I Spy” when the monster surfaced again.
image

“I spy a lake monster!” Fuzzy shouted. “Yeah, right,” Kash played along. “No! Really!” Fuzzy exclaimed. Being skilled trappers, one with imposing size and the other quick reflexes, Kash and Fuzzy took on the beast. The resulting skirmish went on for days, stirring numerous micro bursts around Bear Lake as the monster tried to drown the Mountain Men by blowing lake water from its tuba horn sized nostrils. (Remember how rainy the Rendezvous was last year? Well, it all makes sense now, doesn’t it…) Kash flung the monster by its tail to Fuzzy, who whipped the demon seed above and around his head so fast and high that it sailed halfway around the world, landing in Scotland’s Loch Ness. Mountain Men are known for their tall tales and this one seems mighty steep, but I do have it on good authority that CLARK KENT, THE SUPERMANSTER is making his way back home, via that watery, secret UNDERGROUND SNAILROAD, seeking what is sure to be a tale (yes, I meant tale, not tail) whipping, ginormous rematch with our fearless Members of the Board at the Rendezvous come August!
blmSo, when you travel to Bear Lake for the 2015 BEAR LAKE RENDEZVOUS, if you look long enough and hard enough, you just might catch a glimpse of the beast emerging from its exile. Aim your eyes on the lake at dusk. Don’t even blink! And don’t say I didn’t warn you about swimming in Bear Lake after the sun goes down…

Mountain Medicine

In the early 1800’s it was generally believed that illness and disease were caused by an accumulation of “poisons” in the body, and that if these poisons could be eliminated, the patient would recover their health.

bloodlettingThere were three main therapeutic principles for treatment of disease:

1.  Bleeding by opening a vein or use of leeches
2.  Purging the gastrointestinal system with laxatives, emetics (agents which cause vomiting) and enemas
3.  Sweating or blistering

laxative2Gastric and intestinal disorders were an everyday occurrence in these times because of poor sanitation, and poor food handling practices.

People who lived in the 18th and early 19th Centuries were largely helpless in the matter of health. They lived in constant dread of sudden death from disease, plague, epidemic, pneumonia, or accident.

letter2Their letters always began and usually ended with assurances of the good health of the letter writer, a query about the health of the recipient, and a wish for continuing good health for all.

Most doctors during this period learned their trade through apprenticeship and started as young as 15 years of age. Since, at the time, this was considered “middle age” it puts things in perspective. Most physicians opened their practices without the benefits of any degree or advanced training. Licensing of physicians was sporadic and medical practices were never inspected.

quackdoctorQuacks and charlatans practiced virtually unchecked.  Distrust of physicians ran high during these times, and often those afflicted with illness would attempt their own treatments medicine manthrough folk medicine or Indian remedies before resorting to “professional care.”

The Mountain Men, although experiencing all manner of wounds, lacerations, hypothermia and the like, may have had more successful recoveries from some illnesses, precisely because they lacked access to “professional” medical care.


Lewis_Clark2The list below provides the content of The Lewis and Clark Expedition’s medicine chest:

Assafoetida,
Basilicum Ointment, Benzoin,
Calamine, Cinnamon, Cloves, Copaiboe, Cream of Tarter,
Emplast, Epispastric,
Glauber Salts, Gum Camphor, Gum Elastic,
Ipecac,
Jalap,
Laudanum, Lead Acetate,
Magnesia, Mercury Ointment,
Nutmeg,
Opium,
Peruvian bark,
Root Colombo, Rhubarb, Rush Pills (Thunderbolts),
Saltpeter, Sulfate, Sulfuric Acid,
Tarter Emetic, Tragacanth,
White vitriol, Wintergreen

Old Ephraim

loganTucked away in the fertile Cache Valley of northern Utah, and less than an hour away from The Bear Lake Rendezvous, lies the agricultural college community of Logan. It was here that trappers scurried through the surrounding mountains and valleys hunting beaver and other fur-bearing animals. They “cached” their pelts in secretive locations then “cashed” in their bootie at the yearly “Vous.”zenasleonardmonument

Zenas Leonard describes the following encounter between two trappers and a grizzly bear in September of 1831 while trapping along the Laramie River:laramieriver

 “They had meandered the creek till they came to beaver dams, where they set their traps and turned their horses out to pasture; and were busily engaged in constructing a camp to pass the night in, when they discovered, at a short distance off, a tremendously large Grizzly Bear,oldephraimencounter rushing upon them at a furious rate. They immediately sprang to their rifles which were standing against a tree hard-by, one of which was single and the other double triggered; unfortunately in the hurry, the one that was accustomed to the single trigger, caught up the double triggered gun, and when the bear came upon him, not having set the trigger, he could not get his gun off; and the animal approaching within a few feet of him, he was obliged to commence beating it over the head with his gun. oldephraimhunt


Bruin, thinking this rather rough usage, turned his attention to the man with the single triggered gun, who, in trying to set the trigger (supposing he had the double triggered gun) had fired it off, and was also obliged to fall to beating the ferocious animal with his gun; finally, it left them without doing much injury, except tearing the sleeve off one of their coats and biting him through the hand.”

jedsmith2The following is an account of an encounter Captain Jedediah Smith, also with a grizzly bear.

In a brushy river bottom, while the trappers were leading their horses in single file, a grizzly charged into the line and lumbered toward the front. Jedediah Smith challenged the bear. By the time they drove the bear off Smith was sprawled on the ground bleeding.

jimclymanClyman, the second in command, checked the Captain over. Old Ephraim had broken several of his ribs. He had gotten Jedediah’s head into his mouth. The left eye was gashed. His skull near the crown was stripped bare. The right ear was hanging by a thread. Everyone stood around as Clyman asked Smith what should be done. The Captain said, “One or two go for water. Get a needle and thread and sew up the wounds around my head.

Clyman figured that if Smith, bleeding profusely, had enough gumption to give instructions, then he had enough to stitch him up. He floundered and fretted, Smith coaching him all the way. Finally he managed to sew the edges of the wounds back together except for the severed ear. He said he couldn’t do anything about it. “Stitch it together some way”, said Smith. Clyman looked, hesitated, and began to poke the needle through the various edges and pull the thread tight enough that flesh would touch flesh.

Smith crawled on his horse and rode a mile to water, and then let the men install him in the only tent. In ten days he was ready to ride. The scarred ear, the missing eyebrow, and the scalp scars would clearly stay with him the rest of his life.


grizzly3“Old Ephraim” is the Mountain Man name for Grizzly Bear.  The bear who truly owned the name was an infamous 1,100 pound beast, also known as “Old Three Toes.” The nickname was given by sheephearders due to a deformity on one foot of the grizzly.  Old Ephraim had a hearty appetite for sheep, cattle, and big game and was the last grizzly bear known to roam Utah.  His reign was from 1911 until his death on August 22, 1923.

Frank clarkFrank Clark shot Old Ephraim in the head on 8/22/1923 with a .25-35 carbine rifle. It reportedly took all seven rounds to kill the bear. At the time of his death, Old Ephraim stood 10 feet (3.0 m) tall. oldephraimskulls

OLD EPHRAIM’S SKULL WHILE ON DISPLAY

His skull was first sent to The Smithsonian and later returned for display in the Special Collections section of the Utah State University library in Logan, Utah. The skull has also been on display at The National Oregon/California Trail Center in Montpelier, Idaho.

Oldephraim1Boy Scouts placed a pile of stones over the bear’s remains. Later, an 11-foot tall stone monument, designed by Max Arthur and Howard Jorgensen, was placed at the grave site. This memorial was dedicated on 9/23/1996. Two plaques were placed. One was a poem that reads: “Old Ephraim, Old Ephraim, Your deeds were so wrong yet we build you this marker and sing you this song. To the king of the forest so mighty and tall, we salute you, old Ephraim the king of them all.”


From The Mountain Biker’s Guide to Utah, By Gregg Bromka:

oldephraimsignThe ride to Old Ephraim’s grave is a 20-mile loop rolling through the northern Wasatch Range, following dirt roads, jeep roads, and a touch of singletrack for bikers. The loop commences with several miles of moderate climbing up Cowley Canyon, followed by more climbing, at times rough and steep, to the upper trailhead for Ricks Canyon.oldephraimmap2

The Great Western Trail passes through here on its 3,000-mile course from Canada to Mexico. As the loop circles north, it winds through thick groves of aspens separated by lush meadows. At this point and over your shoulder is a grand view of the central Wasatch Range as it fades into the distant south from Ogden to Salt Lake City.KONICA MINOLTA DIGITAL CAMERA

The modern day CACHE

topogrpahy

The topography of Canada and the United States, west of Lake Superior and North of the forty-second parallel, was determined between 1793 and 1812.  With the exception of the Lewis and Clark Expedition, fur traders from the American and Canadian fur trading companies did all of the early exploration. sacagaweaThese fur traders were either accompanied by Native Americans, or Native Americans told them about the major passes and routes through the Rocky Mountains.

surveyorThe French explorers who mapped the shores of America’s Great Lakes were not trained in surveying. When we look at the maps they drew, in the 1600s and 1700s, there are many mistakes.  Modern surveying had to wait, in any case, until the invention of a reliable chronometer watch that could be used to observe astronomical objects and precisely fix longitudes.  The inventor who assembled the first longitudinal chronometer was an Englishman, a Mr. John Harrison, and he and his successors sold chronometers to the “sea dogs” of the Royal Navy.  chronometerStarting in the late 1700s, the Royal Navy calibrated its chronometers by the longitude of its headquarters in Greenwich, a suburb of London, and the longitudinal numbers that flash on our GPS devices are based upon Greenwich to this day.  Determining one’s precise location, which now can be done with the push of a button or two on a smart phone, then required tedious observations of several known angles – such as the elevation of the North Star – and then complex arithmetical calculations by the light of a grimy window, a candle, or an oil lamp.

cacheThe word CACHE stirs up visions of pioneers, gold miners, pirates and FUR TRADERS. Fur traders and early explorers often “cached” their goods. When Lewis and Clark were hiring men in and around Mackinac Island’s great rival, St. Louis, in 1803; they hired many trained fur traders. Two years later in 1805, pushing up the Missouri River into what is now western Montana, these men saw the Rocky Mountains rising in front of them. They knew they would be coming back, so they carefully memorized certain sections of the riverbank, dug at least two separate holes, deposited some of the goods that they did not want to portage over the mountains, and called the holes “caches.”

lewisdiaryIn 1806 the successful explorers, who had reached and wintered on the Pacific coast, re-crossed the mountains and retrieved their hoards. Lewis was sad, however, he admitted in his journal, that at least one of the caches, containing valuable bearskins, had gotten wet and the furs were ruined. Later fur traders learned how to dig and line relatively waterproof caches by searching for patches of well-drained sandy high ground and using grease, tallow, wax, or some other waterproofing agent to try to seal valuable goods.

Each cache was buried secretly and the extra dirt was piled on a blanket or hide and taken to a stream where it could be washed away.  Other tricks to hiding a cache include digging up the floor within the walls of a tent, burying the cache and then camping over it for a period of days to tamp down the dirt and remove any sign of the hole.  Many trappers would build a campfire over the cache as well.  Sometimes, it was over a year before the trapper returned to their cache treasure mapand to find it they made rough maps, identifying a large mound of dirt over here…a unique tree over there…a big boulder…They would then note the location of the cache by pacing the distance to the cache from each identified landmark.


Let’s fast forward to the current century. Although modern technology has given ease to what was once tedious, man’s desire to seek and discover has not waned.  We experience a Bill Murray type of “Groundhog Day” each day we live by getting up, going to work, doing the sleep thing and starting all over again most days of our lives.  It’s no wonder our desire for diversity and adventure is often achieved during our “down-time” by getting ourselves lost in the great outdoors.

satelliteOn May 2, 2000, at approximately midnight, eastern savings time, twenty-four satellites around the globe simultaneously processed new orders and instantly the accuracy of GPS technology improved tenfold.

An announcement, the day before, came as a welcome surprise to everyone who worked with GPS technology. The government planned to remove selective availability of GPS completely by 2006.

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Dave Ulmer, the first geocache stasher

On May 3, 2000, Dave Ulmer, a computer consultant, wanted to test the accuracy of the now publically available GPS tracking by hiding a navigational target in the woods. He called the idea the “Great American GPS Stash Hunt” and posted it on an internet GPS users’ group.  Dave placed his own container, a black bucket, in the woods by Beavercreek, Oregon, which is near to Portland. Along with a logbook and pencil, he left various prize items including videos, books, software, and a slingshot. He shared the waypoint of his “stash” with the online community on sci.geo.satellite-nav:

N 45° 17.460 W 122° 24.800

Within three days, two different readers read about his stash on the Internet, used their own GPS receivers to find the container, and shared their experiences online. Throughout the next week, others excited by the prospect of hiding and finding stashes, began hiding their own containers and posting coordinates. Like many new and innovative ideas on the Internet, the concept spread quickly.

mikeWithin the first month, Mike Teague, the first person to find Ulmer’s stash, began gathering the online posts of coordinates around the world and documenting them on his personal home page. The “GPS Stash Hunt” mailing list was created to discuss the emerging activity. Names were even tossed about to replace the name “stash” due to the negative connotations of that name.  And Geocaching was born.

GEO: for Earth, was used to describe the global nature of the activity, but also for its use in familiar topics in gps such as geography.

CACHE:  The French word invented in 1797, referred to a hiding place someone would use to temporarily store items.

For the first few months, geocaching was confined to existing experienced GPS users who already used the technology for outdoor activities such as backpacking and boating. Those users had an existing knowledge of GPS and a firm grasp of the obscure lingo used. New players had a steep learning curve before going out on their first cache hunt and tools were initially scarce for this new game.

miketeaguejeremyirish

Brian Roth, Jeremy Irish and Elias Alvord

Jeremy Irish, a web developer for a Seattle company, stumbled upon Mike Teague’s website in July 2000 while doing research on GPS technology. The idea of treasure hunting and using tech-gadgets represented the marriage of two of his biggest interests. Discovering one was hidden nearby; Jeremy purchased his first GPS unit and went on his first hunt the following weekend.

After experiencing the thrill of finding his first cache, Irish decided to start a hobby site for the activity. Adopting the term geocaching, he created Geocaching.com and applied his professional web skills to create tools to improve the cache-hunting experience. The cache listings were still added by hand, but a database helped to standardize the listings. Additional features, like searching for caches around zip codes, made it easier for new players to find listings for nearby caches.

With Mike Teague’s valuable input, the new site was completed and announced to the stash-hunting community on September 2, 2000. At the time the site was launched there were a mere 75 known caches in the world.

slashdotSlashdot, a popular online magazine for techies, reported the new activity on September 25, 2000, introducing a larger group of technology professionals to the activity. The New York Times picked up the story and featured it in its “Circuits” section in October, starting a domino effect of articles written in magazines, newspapers, and other media outlets around the world. CNN even did a segment in December 2000 to profile the new hobby.

The growing community chanted the mantra “If you hide it, they will find it” to the newer players. After some reassurances, pioneers of the hobby started placing caches just to see whether people would go find them. They did.

Through word of mouth, press articles, and even accidental cache discoveries, more and more people have become involved in geocaching. First started by technology and GPS enthusiasts, the ranks of geocachers now include couples, families, and groups from all walks of life. The excitement of the hunt appeals to both the inner (and outer) child. Today you can do a search on just about anywhere in the world and be able to walk, bike, or drive to a nearby hidden cache.

geocachelogoGeocaching is a real-world treasure hunt that’s happening right now; all around you using GPS enabled devices. Participants navigate to a specific set of GPS coordinates and then attempt to find the geocache hidden at that location.  There are now 2,590,242 active geocaches and over 6 million geocachers worldwide.

See!  Everyone, at heart, wants to be a Mountain Man!

laketown01There are also no less than 54 caches hidden in or around Laketown, UT. All you need is a smart phone and the coordinates to the cache, which may be found here:

https://www.geocaching.com/play/search/@41.82549,-111.32243?origin=Laketown+utah

meritbadgeIf you are bringing your family up to camp and visit the Rendezvous, consider giving geocaching a go. If you have a boy scout in your family, they can earn a merit badge for participating.  This is a FUN, FUN activity for the entire family!

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A much younger Dana finding her first cache! July 2001

Dana is a member of Groundspeak and Geocaching.com.  If you have any initial questions about this activity, please feel free to leave a comment below and she will reply.  Or, you may contact her by email with your questions:

dana@bearlakerendezvous.com