Old Ephraim

loganTucked away in the fertile Cache Valley of northern Utah, and less than an hour away from The Bear Lake Rendezvous, lies the agricultural college community of Logan. It was here that trappers scurried through the surrounding mountains and valleys hunting beaver and other fur-bearing animals. They “cached” their pelts in secretive locations then “cashed” in their bootie at the yearly “Vous.”zenasleonardmonument

Zenas Leonard describes the following encounter between two trappers and a grizzly bear in September of 1831 while trapping along the Laramie River:laramieriver

 “They had meandered the creek till they came to beaver dams, where they set their traps and turned their horses out to pasture; and were busily engaged in constructing a camp to pass the night in, when they discovered, at a short distance off, a tremendously large Grizzly Bear,oldephraimencounter rushing upon them at a furious rate. They immediately sprang to their rifles which were standing against a tree hard-by, one of which was single and the other double triggered; unfortunately in the hurry, the one that was accustomed to the single trigger, caught up the double triggered gun, and when the bear came upon him, not having set the trigger, he could not get his gun off; and the animal approaching within a few feet of him, he was obliged to commence beating it over the head with his gun. oldephraimhunt


Bruin, thinking this rather rough usage, turned his attention to the man with the single triggered gun, who, in trying to set the trigger (supposing he had the double triggered gun) had fired it off, and was also obliged to fall to beating the ferocious animal with his gun; finally, it left them without doing much injury, except tearing the sleeve off one of their coats and biting him through the hand.”

jedsmith2The following is an account of an encounter Captain Jedediah Smith, also with a grizzly bear.

In a brushy river bottom, while the trappers were leading their horses in single file, a grizzly charged into the line and lumbered toward the front. Jedediah Smith challenged the bear. By the time they drove the bear off Smith was sprawled on the ground bleeding.

jimclymanClyman, the second in command, checked the Captain over. Old Ephraim had broken several of his ribs. He had gotten Jedediah’s head into his mouth. The left eye was gashed. His skull near the crown was stripped bare. The right ear was hanging by a thread. Everyone stood around as Clyman asked Smith what should be done. The Captain said, “One or two go for water. Get a needle and thread and sew up the wounds around my head.

Clyman figured that if Smith, bleeding profusely, had enough gumption to give instructions, then he had enough to stitch him up. He floundered and fretted, Smith coaching him all the way. Finally he managed to sew the edges of the wounds back together except for the severed ear. He said he couldn’t do anything about it. “Stitch it together some way”, said Smith. Clyman looked, hesitated, and began to poke the needle through the various edges and pull the thread tight enough that flesh would touch flesh.

Smith crawled on his horse and rode a mile to water, and then let the men install him in the only tent. In ten days he was ready to ride. The scarred ear, the missing eyebrow, and the scalp scars would clearly stay with him the rest of his life.


grizzly3“Old Ephraim” is the Mountain Man name for Grizzly Bear.  The bear who truly owned the name was an infamous 1,100 pound beast, also known as “Old Three Toes.” The nickname was given by sheephearders due to a deformity on one foot of the grizzly.  Old Ephraim had a hearty appetite for sheep, cattle, and big game and was the last grizzly bear known to roam Utah.  His reign was from 1911 until his death on August 22, 1923.

Frank clarkFrank Clark shot Old Ephraim in the head on 8/22/1923 with a .25-35 carbine rifle. It reportedly took all seven rounds to kill the bear. At the time of his death, Old Ephraim stood 10 feet (3.0 m) tall. oldephraimskulls

OLD EPHRAIM’S SKULL WHILE ON DISPLAY

His skull was first sent to The Smithsonian and later returned for display in the Special Collections section of the Utah State University library in Logan, Utah. The skull has also been on display at The National Oregon/California Trail Center in Montpelier, Idaho.

Oldephraim1Boy Scouts placed a pile of stones over the bear’s remains. Later, an 11-foot tall stone monument, designed by Max Arthur and Howard Jorgensen, was placed at the grave site. This memorial was dedicated on 9/23/1996. Two plaques were placed. One was a poem that reads: “Old Ephraim, Old Ephraim, Your deeds were so wrong yet we build you this marker and sing you this song. To the king of the forest so mighty and tall, we salute you, old Ephraim the king of them all.”


From The Mountain Biker’s Guide to Utah, By Gregg Bromka:

oldephraimsignThe ride to Old Ephraim’s grave is a 20-mile loop rolling through the northern Wasatch Range, following dirt roads, jeep roads, and a touch of singletrack for bikers. The loop commences with several miles of moderate climbing up Cowley Canyon, followed by more climbing, at times rough and steep, to the upper trailhead for Ricks Canyon.oldephraimmap2

The Great Western Trail passes through here on its 3,000-mile course from Canada to Mexico. As the loop circles north, it winds through thick groves of aspens separated by lush meadows. At this point and over your shoulder is a grand view of the central Wasatch Range as it fades into the distant south from Ogden to Salt Lake City.KONICA MINOLTA DIGITAL CAMERA

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The modern day CACHE

topogrpahy

The topography of Canada and the United States, west of Lake Superior and North of the forty-second parallel, was determined between 1793 and 1812.  With the exception of the Lewis and Clark Expedition, fur traders from the American and Canadian fur trading companies did all of the early exploration. sacagaweaThese fur traders were either accompanied by Native Americans, or Native Americans told them about the major passes and routes through the Rocky Mountains.

surveyorThe French explorers who mapped the shores of America’s Great Lakes were not trained in surveying. When we look at the maps they drew, in the 1600s and 1700s, there are many mistakes.  Modern surveying had to wait, in any case, until the invention of a reliable chronometer watch that could be used to observe astronomical objects and precisely fix longitudes.  The inventor who assembled the first longitudinal chronometer was an Englishman, a Mr. John Harrison, and he and his successors sold chronometers to the “sea dogs” of the Royal Navy.  chronometerStarting in the late 1700s, the Royal Navy calibrated its chronometers by the longitude of its headquarters in Greenwich, a suburb of London, and the longitudinal numbers that flash on our GPS devices are based upon Greenwich to this day.  Determining one’s precise location, which now can be done with the push of a button or two on a smart phone, then required tedious observations of several known angles – such as the elevation of the North Star – and then complex arithmetical calculations by the light of a grimy window, a candle, or an oil lamp.

cacheThe word CACHE stirs up visions of pioneers, gold miners, pirates and FUR TRADERS. Fur traders and early explorers often “cached” their goods. When Lewis and Clark were hiring men in and around Mackinac Island’s great rival, St. Louis, in 1803; they hired many trained fur traders. Two years later in 1805, pushing up the Missouri River into what is now western Montana, these men saw the Rocky Mountains rising in front of them. They knew they would be coming back, so they carefully memorized certain sections of the riverbank, dug at least two separate holes, deposited some of the goods that they did not want to portage over the mountains, and called the holes “caches.”

lewisdiaryIn 1806 the successful explorers, who had reached and wintered on the Pacific coast, re-crossed the mountains and retrieved their hoards. Lewis was sad, however, he admitted in his journal, that at least one of the caches, containing valuable bearskins, had gotten wet and the furs were ruined. Later fur traders learned how to dig and line relatively waterproof caches by searching for patches of well-drained sandy high ground and using grease, tallow, wax, or some other waterproofing agent to try to seal valuable goods.

Each cache was buried secretly and the extra dirt was piled on a blanket or hide and taken to a stream where it could be washed away.  Other tricks to hiding a cache include digging up the floor within the walls of a tent, burying the cache and then camping over it for a period of days to tamp down the dirt and remove any sign of the hole.  Many trappers would build a campfire over the cache as well.  Sometimes, it was over a year before the trapper returned to their cache treasure mapand to find it they made rough maps, identifying a large mound of dirt over here…a unique tree over there…a big boulder…They would then note the location of the cache by pacing the distance to the cache from each identified landmark.


Let’s fast forward to the current century. Although modern technology has given ease to what was once tedious, man’s desire to seek and discover has not waned.  We experience a Bill Murray type of “Groundhog Day” each day we live by getting up, going to work, doing the sleep thing and starting all over again most days of our lives.  It’s no wonder our desire for diversity and adventure is often achieved during our “down-time” by getting ourselves lost in the great outdoors.

satelliteOn May 2, 2000, at approximately midnight, eastern savings time, twenty-four satellites around the globe simultaneously processed new orders and instantly the accuracy of GPS technology improved tenfold.

An announcement, the day before, came as a welcome surprise to everyone who worked with GPS technology. The government planned to remove selective availability of GPS completely by 2006.

Sierra Exif JPEG

Dave Ulmer, the first geocache stasher

On May 3, 2000, Dave Ulmer, a computer consultant, wanted to test the accuracy of the now publically available GPS tracking by hiding a navigational target in the woods. He called the idea the “Great American GPS Stash Hunt” and posted it on an internet GPS users’ group.  Dave placed his own container, a black bucket, in the woods by Beavercreek, Oregon, which is near to Portland. Along with a logbook and pencil, he left various prize items including videos, books, software, and a slingshot. He shared the waypoint of his “stash” with the online community on sci.geo.satellite-nav:

N 45° 17.460 W 122° 24.800

Within three days, two different readers read about his stash on the Internet, used their own GPS receivers to find the container, and shared their experiences online. Throughout the next week, others excited by the prospect of hiding and finding stashes, began hiding their own containers and posting coordinates. Like many new and innovative ideas on the Internet, the concept spread quickly.

mikeWithin the first month, Mike Teague, the first person to find Ulmer’s stash, began gathering the online posts of coordinates around the world and documenting them on his personal home page. The “GPS Stash Hunt” mailing list was created to discuss the emerging activity. Names were even tossed about to replace the name “stash” due to the negative connotations of that name.  And Geocaching was born.

GEO: for Earth, was used to describe the global nature of the activity, but also for its use in familiar topics in gps such as geography.

CACHE:  The French word invented in 1797, referred to a hiding place someone would use to temporarily store items.

For the first few months, geocaching was confined to existing experienced GPS users who already used the technology for outdoor activities such as backpacking and boating. Those users had an existing knowledge of GPS and a firm grasp of the obscure lingo used. New players had a steep learning curve before going out on their first cache hunt and tools were initially scarce for this new game.

miketeaguejeremyirish

Brian Roth, Jeremy Irish and Elias Alvord

Jeremy Irish, a web developer for a Seattle company, stumbled upon Mike Teague’s website in July 2000 while doing research on GPS technology. The idea of treasure hunting and using tech-gadgets represented the marriage of two of his biggest interests. Discovering one was hidden nearby; Jeremy purchased his first GPS unit and went on his first hunt the following weekend.

After experiencing the thrill of finding his first cache, Irish decided to start a hobby site for the activity. Adopting the term geocaching, he created Geocaching.com and applied his professional web skills to create tools to improve the cache-hunting experience. The cache listings were still added by hand, but a database helped to standardize the listings. Additional features, like searching for caches around zip codes, made it easier for new players to find listings for nearby caches.

With Mike Teague’s valuable input, the new site was completed and announced to the stash-hunting community on September 2, 2000. At the time the site was launched there were a mere 75 known caches in the world.

slashdotSlashdot, a popular online magazine for techies, reported the new activity on September 25, 2000, introducing a larger group of technology professionals to the activity. The New York Times picked up the story and featured it in its “Circuits” section in October, starting a domino effect of articles written in magazines, newspapers, and other media outlets around the world. CNN even did a segment in December 2000 to profile the new hobby.

The growing community chanted the mantra “If you hide it, they will find it” to the newer players. After some reassurances, pioneers of the hobby started placing caches just to see whether people would go find them. They did.

Through word of mouth, press articles, and even accidental cache discoveries, more and more people have become involved in geocaching. First started by technology and GPS enthusiasts, the ranks of geocachers now include couples, families, and groups from all walks of life. The excitement of the hunt appeals to both the inner (and outer) child. Today you can do a search on just about anywhere in the world and be able to walk, bike, or drive to a nearby hidden cache.

geocachelogoGeocaching is a real-world treasure hunt that’s happening right now; all around you using GPS enabled devices. Participants navigate to a specific set of GPS coordinates and then attempt to find the geocache hidden at that location.  There are now 2,590,242 active geocaches and over 6 million geocachers worldwide.

See!  Everyone, at heart, wants to be a Mountain Man!

laketown01There are also no less than 54 caches hidden in or around Laketown, UT. All you need is a smart phone and the coordinates to the cache, which may be found here:

https://www.geocaching.com/play/search/@41.82549,-111.32243?origin=Laketown+utah

meritbadgeIf you are bringing your family up to camp and visit the Rendezvous, consider giving geocaching a go. If you have a boy scout in your family, they can earn a merit badge for participating.  This is a FUN, FUN activity for the entire family!

cache3

A much younger Dana finding her first cache! July 2001

Dana is a member of Groundspeak and Geocaching.com.  If you have any initial questions about this activity, please feel free to leave a comment below and she will reply.  Or, you may contact her by email with your questions:

dana@bearlakerendezvous.com

The 1828 Sweet Lake (Bear Lake) Rendezvous

“None of the mountain rendezvous has (sic) been more obscure than the gathering of 1828.”
~Dale Morganmural14-large

Phillip Covington was born in North Carolina on December 1803. He moved to Kentucky, where he became a school teacher.  Then, at the age of 23, he left his Kentucky home for the far western edge of Missouri.

Fast forward to 1879: Covington wrote a manuscript about his adventures in the mountains for the Greeley Colorado Sun. His lively account is quite informative and provides a lot of “new” information about the Rocky Mountain fur trade, fills in gaps, corrects assumptions and tells us more than we ever knew about the 1828 Sweetwater Rendezvous.

william subletteCovington relates that William Sublette arrived in Lexington on September 15, 1827 with a train of pack mules, laden with beaver, to meet William Ashley’s party from St. Louis, who had several wagon loads of goods and groceries ready for transport. Sublette advertised for new recruits and Covington, along with several of his bachelor friends, answered the call.  In exchange for $250.00, the men agreed to dedicate 12-14 months to pack goods and trap beaver. The men purchased from the company, at what Covington called “very low” prices, two blankets, a capote, two heavy red flannel shirts, and as much extra clothing as each thought proper to lay in. Most also purchased two pounds of tobacco and a pound of salt.  On or around October 1, 1827, Jackson and Sublette took charge of the pack train and, with 45 men – Covington included – and 80 mules heavily loaded with good and groceries, they headed to the mountains with goods and supplies valued at $20,000.00.

packtrain2It was a brutally cold winter that year and by the time they reached the mountains the mules were starving and freezing.  Every night one or more mule died until every man was on foot. There was no place to cache goods, so the men were forced to carry the merchandise. Just before Christmas, in the Black Hills near where Fort Laramie is now located, they stopped in a cottonwood grove and made camp.  On Christmas morning Sublette distributed pure brandy which was well received by the company after such hard traveling.

When March arrived and the snow began to disappear, the party found a suitable spot on a bluff along the Platte to cache the supplies. After that, the men started trapping beaver along the many streams that flowed from the foothills.

beaver_slowCovington reports that during this time, the principal food of these trappers was beaver meat. This contradicts long-held beliefs of many historians who claim the mountain men seldom ate the meat of the beaver they trapped.

fabric boltDuring the spring, blowing snow and rain caused considerable damage to one of the caches. Several bales of calico, red and blue cloths, tobacco, sugar, coffee and raisins became wet and damaged. Entire bolts of cloth had to be opened and spread out to dry.

muleBlackfoot Indians killed Joseph Coté at Birch Creek, which later became known as Cote’s defile.  Dale Morgan stated that Cote’s death was “almost the only clue that Jackson and Sublette’s were present in the mountains in the spring of 1828.” The Indian that killed Cote’ slipped in among the mules, cutting several loose.  Coté was on guard duty and  although he crawled close to the Indian, with gun cocked, the Indian fired first. Cote’ was the only man of Sublette’s company lost that year.

Bodmer_--_Blackfoot_Indian,_1840-1843

Approximately two or three hundred Blackfoot warriors attacked Robert Campbell’s party as it was just a few miles from the rendezvous site. Things might have gone poorly for Campbell’s group if it had not been so close to rendezvous. 60-70 trappers and several hundred friendly Indians quickly arrived from rendezvous to reinforce Campbell’s group. skirmish

Depending on who is telling the story, the Blackfoot Indians are believed to have retired from the field before the reinforcements arrived. Lewis Bolduc was killed during this skirmish. Corroborated by Campbell as well as Daniel Pott and Jim Beckworth, Covington’s articles relate that a war party left, then returned after a week or so, with several enemy scalps. A scalp dance was held upon the party’s return and Covington provides many details of this celebration in his writing.

Covington provides the most detailed description known of the location of the 1828 rendezvous site. He wrote:

meadowville01We camped at the south end of the lake. It had a most beautiful shore, sloping gradually to the water’s edge, sandy and gravelly, with a considerable quantity of cottonwood trees growing without any underbrush. South of the lake was a beautiful a valley as eyes ever beheld, about two or three miles each way, all covered with the most luxuriant grass, which furnished excellent pasturage for our animals. About half a mile from the lake, a large spring came up out of the prairie, which made a stream about two feet deep and fifteen or twenty feet wide, with plenty of the finest quality of fish. This was on the east, and on the west, not more than half a mile, came out another spring of nearly the same description, both boiling up on the prairie, and dry ground all round. Both of these streams ran down a gradual slope into the lake.”

The valley Covington mentions is most likely modern day Meadowville Valley. The spring to the east could be Falula Spring and the spring on the west is probably what is now known as Big Spring.

cabinCovington stated that a small cabin was built up about eight feet high with poles laid across, then covered by cottonwood limbs with the leaves still on, forming a good shaded covering. They split poles for shelving for the dry goods and two or three poles formed a counter on which more goods were laid. The only other mention of a log building at a rendezvous comes from the 1838 event.

campRendezvous this year would last through the early part of July. Covington describes a lively time at rendezvous.  “Plenty of fine horses; plenty of fine brandy and whiskey at $2.00 a pint or tin cup full; plenty of goods and groceries of almost every description. Horse racing and shooting was carried on to a considerable degree, while card playing and drinking was not neglected.” Like so many rendezvous yet to come, the men let their hair down and celebrated another successful year in the Rocky Mountains.

hughglassMany of the most famous of mountaineers were present. Hugh Glass retold the famous story of his encounter with a grizzly and even pulled off his shirt to show the scars on his back and body as proof. Covington mentions becoming acquainted with Jim Bridger, Ezekiel Abels, Jim Beckwourth and Black Harris. Harris is believed to have gone west with Sublette in 1827. His whereabouts were unknown up until 1829, but it is now apparent that Harris was at Bear Lake in the summer of 1828.

joshuapilcherSupplied by John Jacob Astor’s American Fur Company and to add a little competition, Joshua Pilcher’s fur company was also present at the 1828 rendezvous.  Most of their supplies, which had been cached, were destroyed by water seepage. They were, however, successful in trading for 17 packs of beaver with the meager supplies that they were able to salvage. Many historians link Johnson Gardner to Pilcher, claiming Gardner acted as Pilcher’s clerk, but he did not hire on with Pilcher until after the end of the rendezvous. Covington’s dialogue indicated Gardner was a free trapper, who had the best rifle in the company short of Captain Sublette.  Gardner must have accompanied the furs east, then hired on with Sublette’s supply train.

packtrainThe partners of Smith, Jackson and Sublette were responsible for the task of returning furs themselves to St. Louis.  The company made their departure from rendezvous for St. Louis around the fifteenth of August, with 45 to 50 men and about 80 or 90 mules heavily laden with fur valued at nearly $36,000.00, consisting of 7710 pounds of Beaver pelts, 59 otter skins, 73 muskrat skins and 27 pounds of castoreum.  Antoine_JanisThe “big Bushaway” (probably Sublette) lead the way and the “little Bushaway” (most likely Antoine Janis) brought up the rear. Some of Pilcher’s men, also carrying their proceeds from trading at the rendezvous, accompanied Sublette back to St. Louis.  Although Sublette and Pilcher were competitors and rivals, it was not unusual for them to travel together, for the greater safety provided by their numbers.scouting

Camp fare was pretty rough. There was no bread, but Sublette brought along two or three mules loaded with side bacon and five or six fat steers to butcher.  That meat was gone well before the caravan got to buffalo country.

buffalo-herdOn the Platte River Plains the company was surprised to spot several hundred Indians riding toward them at full speed. The men halted, formed a circle, unpacked the goods and piled them up for breast works.  The mules were then picketed within the perimeter and the men hunkered down behind the packs, rifles aimed and ready, but the Indians proved to be Pawnee merely looking for buffalo.  A few tobacco plugs earned the company passage.

mtn-men-sleeping2a1Jackson and Sublette arrived in St Louis on October 13, 1828, netting a surplus of $16,000.00.  Upon their arrival, the men of the party all stood in front of Ashley’s fine home and unpacked the mules. General Ashley, his wife, and his sister-in-law hosted the company for a breakfast of coffee, tea, white biscuits, and good butter. Nearly all of the men were still attired in suits of leather, hunting shirts, and blanket coats – just as they came off the plains. Says Covington, they had not washed with soap for months!

50With breakfast over, Ashley gave each man $50 to go to town and purchase new clothes. Covington went to the barbershop for a shave and a haircut, got himself a new suit, then went to a hotel and called for a tub of hot water with PLENTY of soap. He returned to Ashley and settled accounts, receiving $210. He was only docked $40 for clothing and expenses for his year in the mountains.

“So you see I did not gamble nor spend much on alcohol, as some others did.”
~Phillip Covington

Great News!

We have some very exciting news to share with you!

Bear Lake Rendezvous is pleased to announce that our event in August of 2015 has been moved up a week! BLR066

The new dates this year are:
August 17-25,
with the main event
occurring on
Friday, Saturday and Sunday, August 21-23!

 

This is good news in so many ways, the most significant being that our event now falls on a weekend that is void of any other rendezvous in the area. Traders and die-hard rendezvous attendees will no longer feel torn about which events to attend because conflicts in scheduling have been removed!  This adjustment also provides for less potential of having a run-in with mother nature and the grumbling skies that Fall sometimes brings to the area. We just couldn’t be happier!

medallionSO,
RE-MARK YOUR CALENDARS!
HELP SPREAD THE WORD!
BEAR LAKE RENDEZVOUS IS THE
21ST THROUGH THE 23RD!

(Hey!  That rhymes!)

18Those already pre-registered traders, who were contacted about the possibility of this change, do not need to resubmit registration.  We will update our forms and flyers, and contact all other websites that may be advertising the now incorrect dates.  BLR064

Traders who haven’t yet, and wish to pre-register, please feel free to use the old forms while we run through the process of updating everything.

Thanks!
See you in August!

The First Laketown Area Fur Traders Rendezvous

rendezvousdepiction1William Ashley hired Hiram Scott and 46-60 men to take the supply caravan to the 1827 rendezvous. The caravan left St. Louis on April 12, 1827.rendezvousdepiction2

The pack train, with supplies, was valued at $22,447. The 1827 Sweet (Bear) Lake Rendezvous was the first where rum appeared on the list of trade goods.

The men accompanying this pack train were paid $110 for one year of service. Hiram Scott become ill, and he was abandoned. His body was found three years later near Scott’s Bluff, Nebraska.

canon copy-1240A four-pounder cannon, the first wheeled vehicle ever taken into the mountains, was part of this caravan. The route traversed the Platte River, then along the North Platte River and finally across South Pass – the eastern part of the Oregon Trail.  Jed Smith Image 6 - MapIt is thought the group arrived in late June.  They were definitely on site by July 3rd, greeted by Mountain Men and Native Americans already gathering in anticipation of the rendezvous at the south end of Sweet (Bear) Lake.  At the time, this rendezvous was within the territory of Mexico.

800px-Alfred_Jacob_Miller_-_The_Greeting_-_Walters_371940133

Just prior to, or about the time of the arrival of the pack train, Blackfoot warriors attacked those gathering for the rendezvous. According to Daniel Potts, this event was more of a skirmish involving about 20 Blackfoot warriors. However, James Beckwourth, known as the “Immaculate Liar,” accounted it as a six hour, all-out battle involving more than 300 trappers, plus their Indian allies, where more than 173 Blackfoot scalps were taken.beaverpelt

At the rendezvous, 7400 beaver pelts were sold at $3 per pound.  Although a relatively new fur company, Smith, Jackson and Sublette appeared to have had a successful year, primarily due to mark-up of goods and supplies. 130 packs of fur, averaging 100 pounds per pack, were taken on the return trip.beaver2

There was a bit of grumbling among the trappers about the “exorbitant “ prices of goods. Powder was $2.50 a pound, lead $1.50, coffee, sugar, and tobacco $2.00 each, three point blankets $15.00, cotton and calico $2.50 a yard, with blue and scarlet cloth approaching $10.00 a yard.Trading_at_Pierres_Hole

The 1827 rendezvous broke camp on or about around July 13th.  When the trading concluded, all parties dispersed upon the return of Smith from a perilous journey to California.


Flash forward to the late 1860’s:

Meadowville, Round Valley, and Laketown were being established as “Mormon” communities in spite of disagreements with Native Americans over their “hunting grounds.”  It seems that the first white settlers in the valley had made a treaty with the Native Americans, which gave the north end of the Bear Lake Valley to the white people and the south end to the Native Americans.

GreenRiver_Rendezvous, William Henry JacksonLarge bands of Native Americans often gathered in the vicinity of Laketown. In 1870, a large community estimated at 3,000, camped on the south shore of Bear Lake. This caused the Mormon settlers a great deal of concern.  After a meeting of the settlers and chiefs, among them Chief Washakie, an agreement was forged and the Native Americans moved to Wind River, Wyoming.