And So It Begins!

medallionBear Lake Rendezvous will be present to kick off the Utah Rendezvous season on Easter Weekend at Fort Buenaventura Park, located at 2450 A Ave, in Ogden UT.

fb1THE DATES:
April 4-5, 2015.
Saturday events begin at 8:00 a.m. and conclude at  6:00 p.m. Sunday events begin at 10:00 a.m. and conclude at 1:00 p.m. The cost for admission to the Fort B Rendezvous is $2.00 per person.

For more information about this rendezvous,
call (801) 399-8491 or 399-8099

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Fuzzy will be offering his famous pulled pork sandwiches, taters and shrub.  fb2

 

 

 

Kash will be present to hand out BLR flyers and answer your questions. We will have registration forms for you to complete at the Easter Rendezvous. Be sure to ask about group discounts for 2 or more traders who plan to attend the Bear Lake Rendezvous in August 2015!

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Traders who submit paid registrations on Easter Weekend will receive 1 complimentary meal, valued up to $10.00.

 

 

 

Here is a link to the Bear Lake Rendezvous registration form:

http://www.bearlakerendezvous.com/wp-content/uploads/2015/03/BLR-2015-Registration.pdf

In order to move forward, we need traders and campers to confirm their participation through pre-registration.

See you on Easter Weekend!

The Beginning of an Exciting Era!

crop2From 1825 through 1840, the mountain men looked forward, in great anticipation, to the up-and-coming mountain rendezvous held each year.BLR010

It was the social and business event of the year for the fur trappers and traders. Instead of having a permanent trading post, it was Jedediah Smith who convinced William Ashley to bring a caravan of supplies from St. Louis and meet the trappers at Henry’s Fork (aka Randavous Creek – their spelling) on the Green River in July of 1825 for the very first rendezvous.

BLR096At each mountain rendezvous camp, the location for the next years mountain rendezvous camp was announced. After the business of trading the beaver pelts for the essentials of life in the mountains, the mountain men got down to the serious business of gambling, telling tall tales, target shooting and general socializing.  There was no booze at the first rendezvous but they made sure to correct that the next year!

cropMost of the men left the mountain rendezvous camp with little money, for what good was money in the isolated world that they lived in? More important were their horse, rifle, string of traps and a fresh supply of tobacco.

Leaving, they would go to find new beaver streams, hole up in the winter in their isolated world, and HOPE TO LIVE to return to the next mountain rendezvous camp.Rendezvous Sites Map

Year and Location of known mountain rendezvous camps:

  • 1825 Henry’s Fork of the Green River, Wyoming (Randavous Creek – their spelling)
  • 1826 Cache Valley, near present Cove, Utah (Willow Valley)
  • 1827 Bear Lake, Utah (Sweet Lake)
  • 1828 Bear Lake, Utah (Sweet Lake)
  • 1829 Upper Popo Agie, near Lander, Wyoming
  • 1830 Wind River headwaters near Riverton, Wyoming.
  • 1831 Cache Valley, near present Cove, Utah (Willow Valley)
  • 1832 Pierre’s Hole, Idaho
  • 1833 Green River near Horse Creek, Wyoming
  • 1834 Ham’s Fork, Wyoming
  • 1835 Green River near Horse Creek, Wyoming
  • 1836 Green River near Horse Creek, Wyoming
  • 1837 Green River near Horse Creek, Wyoming
  • 1838 Wind River at the mouth of Popo Agie, Wyoming
  • 1839 Green River near Horse Creek, Wyoming
  • 1840 Green River near Horse Creek, Wyoming

This year’s Bear Lake Rendezvous is scheduled for August 28-30. Trader set-up officially begin on Wednesday, August 26th. The public is welcome, from Wednesday onward, to witness the gathering as it unfolds! We strongly encourage that early guests to the Rendezvous also come back to visit again on the weekend when the Rendezvous is in full swing.

Traders who may need to come in early should contact Kash Johnson to make the necessary arrangements.  The Rendezvous ends at sunset on Sunday, August 30th, but folks are welcome to wait to break camp until Monday afternoon. 

Email:  kash@bearlakerendezvous.com
Telephone: 801-452-1518
Mail:  Bear Lake Rendezevous, P.O. Box 44, Woodruff, UT   84086

beadwork

Native American Dress

crow indiansNative American clothing has a long, diverse history. Each tribe used similar techniques of manufacture, but that is where the similarities stopped. Tribes dressed distinctively as a claim of their heritage. Great pride was taken in each design. Initially, tribal attire was quite different from region to region.

IndiananimalrelationhipNative American people believe that humans and animals are related and should treat each other with respect and kindness. Animals give themselves to humans for food and clothing.  The hunter thanks them for their sacrifice by using as much of the animal as possible. It is said that to wear an animal skin inside out or in any different way than the animal would “is disrespectful to the animal.”

breechclothleggings

Common items of clothing for men, among the tribes, were breechcloths and leggings. Often the breechcloth is all men would wear. As it got colder, the men would wear leather leggings, for extra warmth, that were attached to their breechcloths. Some tribes wore kilts. Some wore trousers made of furs. The Sioux wore war shirts. In some Tribes, women wore skirts and would also go without a shirt. The Cheyenne preferred a one-piece buckskin dress.

bark clothBark was stripped, dried, and shredded to make fibers which were then used to weave soft, comfortable cloth. The Pomo tribe wore skirts made from redwood bark. The Cherokee used mulberry bark. The Paiute and Washoe shredded the plentiful sagebrush bark. Tribes of the rainy Northwest Coast, such as the Tlingit and the Suquamish, used the bark of the cedar tree.

weaving loomMany tribes used handmade methods of weaving, but natives of the American Southwest were the first group to develop a loom for weaving cloth. In 1200, well before the arrival of the first Europeans, Indians in the Southwest grew cotton and wove it into cloth. They also wove yucca, wool, feathers, and even human hair. Breechclouts, leggings, and skirts were often made of woven fibers.

trousers

Tribes living in colder regions needed thicker clothing, so they wore trousers, jackets, and hooded anoraks. Women also wore leggings under their skirt or tunic. The Iroquois and Pequot chose to accessorize their clothes with fur, claws and shells. Southeast tribes like the Cherokee, Creek, Seminole and the Shawnee of the Plains used feathers and teeth.elktoothdress

In Native cultures, women often wore the same dress for years, so the garment was designed to tell the woman’s story.  Symbols referred to her tribe, marital status, and the hunting prowess of her husband or father.   A dress bedazzled with dozens of elk eyeteeth spoke of the skilled hunters in her family .tanning hides

It takes about 40 hours of hard, physical work to prepare a hide properly.  At first, a single animal hide was folded in half. The two edges were then sewn to create a straight tube dress, which made movement difficult, twohidedressso women in nomadic tribes began making two-hide dresses. Garments were cut to take advantage of the natural shape of the hides.  The tail of the animal was placed at the top of dress, and was a highly desirable neck embellishment.  Later in the nineteenth century it became fashionable to remove the tail from the hide and replace it with intricate beadwork . Two-hide dresses evolved into three-hide dresses, with the third hide folded like a short cape over the two-hide garment.

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Dresses were warm and weather appropriate.  They were often additionally adorned with porcupine quills, bits of tin, carved bone, animal sinew, coins, animal teeth, fossilized shells, and the brightly colored glass beads that traders brought from the glass factories in Europe. Thousands of hours would go into the embellishment of Native American wear, often with the entire yoke covered in beads.

In the 1800s, the Cherokee Indians were the first to begin to adopt the culture that the white man brought to them. They began to dress more European, and even adopted many of their farming and building methods.

Mills in England wove wool specifically for trading with Native Americans and by the mid-nineteenth century, dresses made of this “Indian cloth” were common.  The wool was often dyed a vivid scarlet or dark blue, with the un-dyed selvage incorporated in the design to fall at the edge of the garment.  It was also in the 1800s that rows of ribbon, shells or beads were added as another design element.

mukluk

All the tribes had similar styles of footwear, from moccasins to mukluk, although they too were often distinguished by tribe, via cut, beadwork and painted designs.  Native Americans living in the East wore soft-soled moccasins decorated in zoomorphic or flower designs. The designs covered everything except the sides of the moccasins.  The western plains Indians wore hard soled moccasins made from two pieces of leather.  Designs on these moccasins covered the entire top of the moccasin but left the cuffs free of marking.

Once colonization began, tribes intermingled more, and their clothes became more and more alike.   To understand fully the distinctions of each tribe, the years before colonization must be studied.  As Native Americans had continued contact with Europeans and white settlers, they eagerly incorporated new items, such as the glass beads and silver ornaments previously mentioned, into their wardrobes.  As they moved to the reservations, their new circumstances forced them to buy clothing from whites, which drastically changed the way Native Americans dressed.

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To the Native American, imitation is not the highest form of flattery.  Children dressing up as an Indian at Halloween, the Hippies of the sixties wearing fringe, and feathers in their hair, to Woodstock, and the current trend of pop stars to wear a headdress during a grammy performance, is highly offensive and is believed, by the Native American population, to disregard Indian spirituality.

Authentic Attire for Rendezvous Women

Women’s apparel, during the Fur Trade era, was simple and practical.
women4

Appearing in the 1700’s, as a staple wardrobe item, the CHEMISE was worn during the day as an undergarment and doubled at night as a nightgown. The neck and sleeves of the chemise had drawstrings which allowed for adjustment in size and comfort.  Colors were usually white or natural and the fabric was typically a cotton muslin.

The chemise was topped with an ENGLISH BODICE and SKIRT during the day.
women1women5

The ensemble was further adorned with a MOP HAT, MODESTY PIECE at the neck, and APRON when the woman performed her chores.

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CLOTH DRESSES were also introduced to the Plains Indian Women with the westward movement of the fur trade.women3
Women also wore MOCCASINS and CAPOTES.moccasins2capote2

Visitors to The Bear Lake Rendezvous who choose to come in authentic dress will gain free admission!  Gate fees for all other guests are $3.00 per person, per day. Lodgers in the Primitive camp and Traders must adhere to authentic dress requirements.  We want everyone to enjoy the Rendezvous!  If you have any questions about authentic wear, please contact Kash Johnson

Email:  kash@bearlakerendezvous.com
Telephone: 801-452-1518
Mail:  Bear Lake Rendezevous, P.O. Box 44, Woodruff, UT   84086

Mountain Man Attire

fabricFABRIC was the first choice of the mountain newcomer. Shirts and trousers came in off white, natural, blue, red, large prints or striped calico. The newcomer might also have teamed up his wardrobe with boots or brogans. Fabrics, although comfortable, were not durable under the hard usage in the mountains, and replacement was not possible except at rendezvous or the widely scattered trading posts.

buckskinBUCKSKIN  replaced fabric clothing as those wore out. Buckskin clothing was generally patterned after white styles, rather than Indian styles. The fringe appeared to be mainly decorative, although it may have softened the wearer’s profile making him less of a target in the woods. Buckskin, although cold in the winter and hot in the summer, had the advantage in that it was extremely durable. It wore like iron, provided protection from mosquitoes and other biting insects, as well as from thorns and brambles. Buckskin also had the advantage in that the raw materials were available in the wilderness and could be secured from the Indians.

shirt

SHIRTS worn by the mountain man would have been a simple pullover design with a large body and loose fitting sleeves. Solid colors, especially red, but including blue, green and yellow were favorites. Shirts were a popular trade item at rendezvous and in any year hundreds might have been taken to the mountains.

pants

TROUSERS were mostly blue  color. They were high-waisted, full in the hips and seat, with fall-front or fly type closures. There were three basic kinds of legs:

front

  1. Stove pipe
  2. Tapered small to the ankle
  3. Close to the leg.

Belts were not used to secure trousers at this time, but rather suspenders, ties or cinches. Instead of trousers, a Mountain Man may have chosen to wear Leggings and a breechclout.

leggings2buckskinleggingsLEGGINGS were held up using either ties or garters. Leggings and breechclout had the advantage in that they were simple to make, very comfortable and functional. Also, when setting traps, leggings were very easy to remove and put on.

belt

The purpose of a BELT was not to suspend the trouser. They were generally not wider than two inches and used to carry weapons such as sheath knives, tomahawks, and perhaps a pistol. Belts were left simple, without tacks or rivets, and a buckle, when visible, was generally worn to the side.

knifeKNIVES were kept in simple sheaths at the back. Decoration was limited to a single row of tacks along the blade edge of the sheath. Most sheaths did not have a belt slot, but were simply thrust through the belt.

coatHUNTING COATS were often of leather and open in the front.  These coats were elaborately fringed along the shoulders, sleeves, fronts and bottoms. They range in length from mid-thigh to knee, and are generally shown with well-fitted sleeves and collars. The coats do not have buttons, but close using ties. For cool and cold weather, the Mountain Man would wear a capote.

capoteA CAPOTE is a long coat of simple design often with a hood. It was made from wool blankets, or wool blanket material which could be cut and assembled in the mountains. Capotes were also available for trade at rendezvous and at the posts. The capote dates back to at least the early 1700’s and was popular to at least the 1870’s. Although designed as a coat, the capote could also be used as an extra blanket for sleeping during cold weather. The capote alone is warm and comfortable, however, was large and loose enough that it could be worn over multiple layers of winter clothing.

BUFFALOROBEBUFFALO ROBES are made of the tanned and softened whole-hide of the buffalo. Robes which include both the head and tail were exceptionally valuable to the Indians because they believed that the skin would inherit the spirit of the Buffalo in its completeness. Robes were prized both by the Indians and Mountain Men as a type of overcoat worn during the coldest times. Robes were simply draped over the shoulders, and held closed with the hands, or they were sometimes belted in the middle.

plowsharesmoccasinsAs boots or BROGANS wore out, they were replaced by MOCCASINS. Some men of the period, while outfitting in St. Louis were reported to have traded their boots for moccasins without waiting for them to wear out. Shoes, both men’s and women’s styles, were not an uncommon item on trade inventories. The women’s shoes were obviously intended as trade items for the Indian wives of men stationed in the mountains.

man hatHATS worn by the Mountain Men were wide, flat brimmed felt styles with a low crown that became twisted and bent from hard use. Felt hats were mostly light colored, off-white, tan or grey. Hat bands were simple cord, strap or ribbon. Hats were often decorated with feathers or tails and a clay pipe is often held in the hatband. HOODS were also worn and appeared to be made from blanket material or leather. Many were constructed with “ears” and a flap reaching down to the shoulders. Fur hats, especially those with face, legs and tail, which are so popular at modern rendezvous and Hollywood movies, are not shown in any paintings or drawings from the time and were most likely not worn. Hat fashions changed by the beginning of the 1850’s, reflecting high crowns. Hats made of fabric with a leather bill also emerged.

beadquillBEAD and QUILL WORK, when present, they were simple narrow bands of color or bands of alternating colors and were actually rare decor. Elaborately beaded or quilled clothing would be analogous to wearing gang colors and a mountain man would be asking to lose his scalp if he found himself in the wrong neighborhood.

Visitors to The Bear Lake Rendezvous who choose to come in authentic dress will gain free admission!  Gate fees for all other guests are $3.00 per person, per day. Lodgers in the Primitive camp and Traders must adhere to authentic dress requirements.

requirements-nationals

We want everyone to enjoy the rendezvous!  If you have any questions about authentic wear, please contact Kash Johnson

Email:  kash@bearlakerendezvous.com
Telephone: 801-452-1518
Mail:  Bear Lake Rendezevous, P.O. Box 44, Woodruff, UT   84086

Lodging

teepee1

           Many different styles of lodging were used by the mountain man but most of it was quick to setup and easy to move. The replica shelters that we use today are usually made of heavy canvas, and some are even coated with a fire resistant material. There are many affordable ways to create your own authentic shelter. Here are some of the more common styles used during the mountain man era.

Lean-To Sheltertent6

          This shelter can be easily created using a single large piece of canvas such as a painterʼs tarp or several smaller pieces stitched together.

Open A-Frametent5

          This shelter can also be created using a single large piece of canvas, or several pieces sewn together. Cloth loops, or re-enforced holes need to be added to the edges of the canvas so that it can be staked down. A wooden pole is placed at each end, and can be stabilized by a support rope staked in front and back , or by a ridge pole running between the two upright poles.

Closed A-Frame or Wedge Tenttent4

          This shelter is very similar to the open A-frame, but it has flaps added to the front and back. It adds more privacy and warmth. Adding ties to the flaps so that it may be secured to the upright poles, cuts back on the wind blowing through.

Converted A-Frame

tent3          For warmer evenings, two additional poles can lift the side of the closed A-frame up.  This creates a small awning. If the wind picks up simply lower the side again.

Plow Point Wedge
tent1

          This shelter is made from a single square piece of canvas. The canvas is staked out on three corners and then the forth corner is lifted, and tied to a pole or near by tree. Often a second pole is used inside to push the center of the square up. A more effective way of doing this is to add a loop of fabric or a tie on the outside, in the center of the square and to tie it to a ridge pole or tree.  This shelter is also known as a diamond shelter. It can be tent2configured in several ways depending on how many poles you wish to use, or where there are near by trees to attach it to. It can also be made into a simple Lean-To, or an Open A-Frame. The primary features of a diamond shelter are its square shape, ability to be tied or staked on all four corners, and a tie directly in the center of the square. You can purchase versions of this shelter with ties all along the four edges, which make it more versatile. It is a rather inexpensive shelter to buy pre-made, but can also be made easily out of a piece of heavy canvas.

          The Bear Lake Rendevous is an event spread out over several days with opportunity to witness many and varied activities and demonstrations.  For those able to stay the entire event there is camping space available.  In addition to primitive camping, we provide plenty of wide open and flat range for trailers or RVs.  We encourage mountain man enthusiasts and their families to make their rendezvous campsite a home base to relish the richness that is Rich County, participate in water sport on the lake, hike in the pristine beauty of nature and take advantage of the many amenities provided by our surrounding communities.  Reservations may be made now at http://www.bearlakerendezvous.com

The Mountain Man Diet

RENDEZVOUS FOOD1

What did a Mountain Man eat?  Meat, meat and more meat!  Or, conversely, whatever there happened to be to eat!  Food stuff was often salted or dried to preserve it, so cooking consisted of attempting to make the food palatable.  And if it wasn’t, they ate it anyway.  Imagine a daily diet of bacon, salt pork, smoked ham, dried or corned beef, smoked, salted, and dried fish, and the occasional fresh game.  Other staples included biscuits, pancakes, fry and corn bread with the occasional bean, hominy, rice and peas to round out the food pyramid.  It’s a good thing Mountain Men were always on the move!

RENDEZVOUSFOOD5Mountain Men might eat the same foods, day after day, for months at a time.  There was no room for being fastidious or finicky.   Journals of the Mountain Man often mention eating such things as moccasins, saddles or rawhide straps during the lean moments.  Maybe that’s where the myth came about that Mountain Men softened their leather by chewing it?

cans

Canned goods were first produced in 1813 for the English military, and 20 years later were provided in British grocery stores, but canned goods in the West didn’t really come about until the California Gold Rush in 1849.  The first show of any canned goods at a Rendezvous was in 1837 when Sir William Drummond Stewart brought sardines.

RENDEZVOUSFOOD3

Buffalo was probably the biggest staple of the Mountain Men diet.  Fat cow was generally the most desirable, however, poor bull was acceptable in lean times.  In his journal, Osborne Russell describes the preparation of “poor bull”, by Jim Bridger’s party.  He writes,“It would doubtless be amusing to a disinterested spectator to witness the process of cooking poor Bull meat as practiced by this camp during the winter of 1835-6. On going through the camp at any time in the day heaps of ashes might be seen with the fire burning on the summit and an independent looking individual who is termed a Camp Keeper sitting with a “two year old club” in his hand watching the pile with as much seeming impatience as Philoctete did the burning of Hercules.  At length poking over the ashes with his club he rolls out a ponderous mass of Bull beef and hitting it a rap with his club it bounds 5 or 6 feet from the ground like a huge ball of gum elastic.  This operation frequently repeated divests it of the ashes adhering to it and prepares it for carving. He then drops his club and draws his butcher knife, calling to his comrades.”

boudin

Portions of the intestine of Buffalo were filled with wild onions and other herbs and spices, tied off and roasted until sizzling. Called Boudins these “sausages” were considered a delicacy and were always a favorite, while also providing vitamins and nutrients otherwise lacking in a diet composed largely of red meat.

pemmican

Pemmican is made with a combination of dried meat, dried fruit, and rendered grease.  The dried meat and fruit are pounded to very fine particles or meal.  Just enough hot grease is poured over the mixture of meat and fruit to moisten it. The mixture is then packed into a skin sack or bladder.   It was the Mountain Man “Power Bar” and a source of high energy food, easily transported or carried, that wouldn’t spoil for months on the trail.

allspice

The Mountain Men ate most of their food without any seasoning at all. Spices, however, were shipped to rendezvous, and for at least limited times after rendezvous, must have been available for seasoning foods.  Spices known to have been packed to rendezvous included: sugar; salt; pepper and allspice.  Salt for seasoning or for curing hides could also be obtained from salt springs and salt deposits found at some localities in the western mountains.

Hixton, WI antique store Old Lettering

When available, coffee and tea were the preferred drinks of the Mountain Man. Large quantities of both were shipped to the mountains for rendezvous.  Milk was sometimes available at forts or posts, or from the semi-wild cattle that roamed ranches in Mexico and the southwest.  Then there is Mountain Cider, Bitters and High Wine.  Google them if you would like to be disgusted.

flask

Alcohol was an important element in the fur trade from its origins in the earliest 1600’s through the end of the era in the 1840’s.  During the rendezvous period (and earlier) all distilled liquors were colorless.  Large profits were assured through use of alcohol prior and during trading with the fur gathers, whether they were free trappers, company men or Indians.  Alcohol packed to rendezvous was extremely high proof.  Once at rendezvous or trading post, the alcohol was generally diluted with water at a ratio of 1:2 or 1:4 or even more.  This increased the volume of the product and profits.

Interested in the origin of the term, “Firewater?”   In order to test the potency of a liquor, a mountain man, or Indian would dash some of the liquid on the campfire.  If the fire roared up, it was determined to be the good stuff. If the fire was doused, it was determined that the liquor had been too diluted.  This, however, may also be one of those mountain man myths.